The two great pre-Roman Italic civilisations were the Etruscans and the Greeks. Both settled around the 8th century B.C. in, respectively, Etruria in Central Italy and Magna Graecia in the South. The former were politically organised into City-States along the Tuscany-Umbria-Latium axis, constituting the first germ of a State system.
The latter arrived from ancient Greece and colonised southern Italy, with the original settlement at Cumae (Cuma) which some sources say as far back as 1200 B.C., leaving a decidedly longer-lasting cultural imprint, never constituting a unified State as such, but infiltrating all of southern Italy and leaving philosophical, political, artistic, linguistic and social traces that were embraced, for the most part, by the Romans themselves, who were quick to be seduced by their charm.
The Mediterranean Sea provided a broad boulevard for the migration of tribal groups in the prehistoric period when tools were still fashioned only from stone-the period before about 3000 B.C that is now referred to as the Stone Age. The size of the island of Sicily and its accessibility to Europe, Africa and Asia Minor made it a natural crossroads in the migratory pattern. Cave paintings recently discovered at Monte Pellegrino near Palermo show habitation of the area even before 8000 BC, in the Paleolithic segment of the Stone Age.
There were many pre-Roman invaders of Sicily with the Carthaginians from North Africa, the Phoenicians, Spartans, taking their turns to establish colonies for trading as well.
Etruscans Settlements in Italy